Gkol. Mag., 1917.
From a photograph hy Elliott <&' Fry.
GMO LOGICAL MAGAZIN li
NEW SERIES. DECADE VI. VOL. IV.
No. VII.—JULY, 1917.
I.—Eminent Living Geologists.
Alfred Harxer, ALA., LL.D. (McGill), F.R.S., President of the
Geological Society of London 1916-17, Fellow of St. John’s
College, and Lecturer in Petrology in the University of Cambridge.
(WITH A PORTRAIT, PLATE XVIII.)
R. ALFRED HARKER was born at Hull, in Yorkshire, on
v February 19, 1859 ; his name may thus be appropriately
added, as an “ eminent geologist”, to the county which claims
amongst its sons the name of Sedgwick, the Woodwardian Professor
of Geology in the University of Cambridge (1818-73), the first who
taught modern geology; and famous as having had such historians
as William Smith (the “Father of English Geology”) and his nephew, *
Professor John Phillips; also as the birthplace of Sorby, Williamson,
Strickland, Hudleston, and many others.
Ho had, as a boy, a taste for chemistry and natural history, and
made his first acquaintance with geology in his holiday wanderings
along the Yorkshire coast, with John Phillips’ writings as his guide.
It was as a student of mathematics that Harker went up to
Cambridge, and was entered at St. John’s College in 1878. But he
soon found, in the genial Professor McKennv Hughes, 1 one who was
ever ready to welcome any “freshman ” with geological leanings, and
Harker became one of the first members of the Sedgwick Club, founded
about that time by Watts and others of his contemporaries.
After graduating in the Mathematical Tripos as 8th Wrangler, in
January, 1882, Harker came back to geology by way of physics and
mineralogy, and was at once offered a teaching post on the geological
staff. As demonstrator and afterwards lecturer, he has been
responsible for the teaching of petrology at Cambridge for more than
thirty years; but for a long time the almost total want of accom¬
modation and equipment in the old Woodwardian. Museum made it
impossible to carry out this work in a satisfactory manner.
Alfred Harker was elected a Fellow of St. John’s in 1885. In
those days this College, owing doubtless in part to Professor Bonney’s
influence, was notably strong in Geology. Of the last nine Presidents
of the Geological Society five have been Johnians.
As a field-geologist his earliest original work was done in North
1 Written on May 10. Our dear friend Professor Hughes passed away
on June 9 ; see Obituary Notice, p. 334 .—Ed. Geol. Mag.
DECADE VI.—VOL. IV.—NO. VII.
Eminent Living Geologists-
Wales, first on the cleavage structure of the slates, and then on the
Ordovician igneous rocks. The results of the latter work were in
part embodied in the Sedgwick Prize Essay for 1888.
From 1889 to 1893, excepting a visit to America, Harker’s
vacations were spent mostly with his friend and fellow-Johnian,
I. E. Marr, in the Lake District. Their aim was principally to
decipher the geological structure and sequence of that district in
the light of what had been learnt in other disturbed areas. This
problem is perhaps not to be finally solved without a complete
re-survey of the ground ; but some conclusions were reached, and
memoirs on the Shap granite and its metamorphism and on the
Carrock Fell intrusions were also among the results of those
In 1895, by the good offices of Sir Archibald Geikie, Harker became
attached to the Geological Survey of Scotland, and was engaged for
ten years in the investigation of part of Skye and of the Small Isles
to the south. The summer half of the year was spent in mapping
and the winter half in the study of material gathered in the field.
The results of this work are contained in the official maps and
memoirs, including a special memoir on The Tertiary Igneous Rocks
of Skye .
In 1905 he quitted the Geological Survey for other engagements.
The geological department at Cambridge was now housed in the new
Sedgwick Museum, and teaching duties, together with the charge of
the petrological section of the Museum, had become more engrossing.
Dr. Harker found time, however, for frequent visits to the Highlands
and other parts of Britain with occasional excursions abroad. He
had made it part of his programme as a teacher of students to bring
together, as far as possible, complete representative collections of
rock-specimens in the Museum at Cambridge, which now possesses
large series from many British areas, as well as from Norway, Canada,
and other countries. The collection of rock-slices also has grown
until it now numbers more than 12,000.
Dr. Harker had written in 1895, chiefly to meet the needs of his
own students, a Textbook of Petrography, and this has been revised
from time to time in subsequent editions. In 1909 appeared The
Natural History of Igneous Rocks , which aimed especially at
interesting geologists in the genetic aspect of petrolog}^.
In February, 1907, on the occasion of his presenting the Murchison
Medal to Mr. Alfred Harker, F.H.S., Sir Archibald Geikie, then
President of the Geological Society, said: “Tlie Murchison Medal
has been assigned to you as a testimony of the Council’s appreciation
of the importance of your contributions to Petrographical and
“ You had already distinguished yourself by your studies in cleavage,
by the zeal and success with which you had thrown yourself into the
pursuit of petrographical research along those modern paths in which
this department of our science has been so transformed and enlarged,
and lastly by the skill which you had shown in the field investigation
of the ancient igneous rocks of North Wales and of part of the
Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S.
“ With this reputation already established and yearly growing, you
were induced, at my request, to enter the Geological Survey.
Although the circumstances under which you joined that service
formed a new departure in its usages, I have always felt that on no
part of my long connection with the Survey could I look back with
more satisfaction than on the arrangements which enabled us to
secure your services.
“You speedily acquired the skill of a practised surveyor, and among
the hills of Skye and Rum you had an opportunity of mapping some
of the most complicated and deeply interesting pieces of volcanic
geology in this country. Having had from time to time opportunities
of visiting you on the ground, I can bear witness both to the bodily
vigour and endurance and to the geological enthusiasm and insight
with which you climbed crags and peaks on which no geologist had
set foot before you. The maps and memoirs which you have
produced of these portions of the Inner Hebrides will always
remain as a monument of your prowess as a field geologist and
Another of his fellow-workers writes : “ What specially struck me
about Harker was his thoroughness. Having started on a piece of
work he devoted his whole energy to its completion. All else was-
subordinated to its execution, and one might almost literally say that
no stone was left unturned which would cast any light upon it.”
“ He is one of those who believe that for the right understanding
of a science it is necessary to know something of the history of its
growth, and with this in view he has accumulated in his library
a valuable series of works which bear upon the early history of the
science of geology and the more recent branch of petrography.
“ Harker's time has been largely occupied by teaching and research,
but he has nevertheless contrived to devote much of it to the
enrichment of the petrographical collections in the Sedgwick
Museum, and to their arrangement. He has travelled much to
obtain specimens for this purpose. Of special interest are two
magnificent collections which he has brought together to illustrate
genetic connexion of igneous rocks, the one of those of Western
Scotland, the other of the group rendered classic by the researches of
Brogger in the Christiania region.
“Though Harker’s fame rests largely on his petrographical work he
is also a physical geologist of a very high order, as might be expected
from one who prefaced his geological career by a mathematical
training. We may make special mention of the very important
contribution which he made to the physics of glacial erosion in his
paper on Ice Erosion in the Cuillin Hills (Skye), which appeared
in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1901
(T.R.S.E., vol. xl, pt. ii) ”
In addition to his service to science, as a Lecturer in Petrology in
the University, Ur. Harker has published most of the results of his
investigations, whether in the field, the laboratory, or with the
microscope, in a permanent form, for the use of geologists generally;
and the Editor is happy to record that, of his numerous publications,
fifty are preserved in the pages of the Geological Magazine.
292 Eminent Living Geologists —
Dr. Harker received the Wollaston Donation Fund, 1896 ; the Murchison
Medal, 1907. He was President of Section C, British Association, at
Portsmouth, 1911. He has also kept up connexion with his native county,
and was President of the Yorkshire Naturalists’ Union, 1911, and President
of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 1912-13. The McGill University
(Montreal) conferred on Dr. Harker the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1913.
He is'at this time President of the Geological Society of London, 1916-17,
till February, 1918.
List of Dr. A. Harker’s principal Geological Writings.
1884. “Graphical Methods in Field Geology” : Geol. Mag., pp. 154-62.
1885. “The Oolites of the Cave District” :■ Naturalist , pp. 229-32.
“ The Cause of Slaty Cleavage ” : Geol. Mag., pp. 15-17.
“On the Successive Stages of Slaty Cleavage ” : ibid., pp. 266*8.
1886. “ Report on Slaty Cleavage and Allied Rock Structures ” : Rep.
Brit. Assoc, for 1885, pp. 813-52.
1887. “On some Anglesey Dykes,” I and II: Geol. Mag., pp. 409-16,
1888. “ Notes on the Geology of Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Valley ” :
ibid., pp. 221-6.
“On some Anglesey Dykes,” III: ibid., pp. 267-72.
“Additional Note on the Blue Hornblende of Mynydd Mawr”:
ibid., pp. 455-6.
“ On the Eruptive Rocks of the Neighbourhood of Sarn, Caernarvon¬
shire”: Q.J.G.S., vol. xliv, pp. 442-61.
1889. “Notes on the Physics of Metamorphism ” : Geol. Mag., pp. 15-20.
“ Local Thickening of Dykes and Beds by Folding”: ibid., pp. 69-70.
“ Eyes of Pyrites and other Minerals in Slate ” : ibid., pp. 396-7.
The Bala Volcanic Series of Caernarvonshire (Sedgwick Prize Essay
for 1888), Svo, Cambridge.
“Petrological Notes on Boulders from the Boulder-Clays of East
Yorkshire” : Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc., vol. xi, pp. 300-7.
1S90. “Petrological Notes on Some of the Larger Boulders on the Beacli
South of Flamborough Head ” : ibid., pp. 409-23.
1891. “The Ancient Lavas of the English Lake District”: Naturalist ,
“Notes on a Collection of Bocks from the Tonga Islands” : Geol.
Mag., pp. 250-S.
(With J. E. Marr.) “ The Shap Granite and the Associated Igneous
and Metamorphic Rocks” : Q.J.G.S., vol. xlvii,pp. 266-327.
“Petrological Notes on Rocks from the Cross Fell Inlier” : ibid.,
“ Thermo-metamorphism in Igneous Rocks ” : Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer.,
vol. iii, pp. 16-22.
1892. “ Physical Geology in the Basin of the Colorado ” : Natural Science.
vol. i, pp. 205-10.
“The Lamprophyres of the North of England,” : Geol. Mag.,
“ Porpliyritie Quartz in Basic Igneous Rocks” : ibid., pp. 485-8.
1893. “ Norwegian Boulders in Holderness ” : Naturalist , pp. 1-4.
“The Use of the Protractor in Field Geology”: Sci. Proc. Roy.
Dubl. Soc. (n.s.), vol. viii, pp. 12-20.
(With J. E. Marr.) “Supplementary Notes on the Metamorphic
Rocks around the Shap Granite”: Q.J.G.S., vol. xlix, pp. 359-71.
“On the Migration of Material during Thermal Metamorphism”:
Journ. Geol., vol. i, pp. 574-8.
“Extinction Angles in Cleavage - Flakes”: Min. Mag., vol. x,
“Berthelot’s Principle applied to Magmatic Concentration ” : Geol.
Mag., pp. 546-7.
Dr. Alfred Barker, F.R.S.
1894. “Carrock Fell: a Study in the Variation of Igneous Rocks,” I:
Q.J.G.S., vol. 1, pp. 311-36.
“The Evolution of Igneous Rocks”: Science Progress , vol. i,
“ Ancient Volcanic Rocks” : ibid., vol. ii, pp. 48-63.
“ Cordierite in the Lake District” : Geol. Mag., pp. 169-70.
“ On some Variolitic Rocks on Carrock Fell ” : ibid., pp. 551-3.
1895. “Carrock Fell : a Study in the Variation of Igneous Rocks,” II and
III : Q.J.G.S., vol. li, pp. 125-47.
Petrology for Students : an Introduction to the Study of Rocks under the
Microscope , 8vo, Cambridge. (Revised editions in 1897, 1902, and
190S, and French translation in 1902.)
1896. “ On certain Granophyres, modified by the Incorporation of Gabbro
Fragments, in Strath (Skye) ” : Q. J.G.S., vol. lii, pp. 320-8.
“The Natural History of Igneous Rocks. I. Their Geographical
and Chronological Distribution”: Science Progress (n.s.), vol. i,
1898. “The Natural History of Igneous Rocks. II. Their Forms and
Habits” : ibid., vol. ii, pp. 203-18.
1899. “ Glaciated Valleys in the Cuillins, Skye” : Geol. Mag., pp. 196-9.
“On the Average Composition of British Igneous Rocks”: ibid.,
“ Notes on Subaerial Erosion in the Isle of Skye ” : ibid.,
(With C. T. Clough.) “On a Coarsely Spherulitic (‘Variolitic’)
Basalt in Skye” : Trans. Edin. Geol. Soc., vol. ii, pp. 381-9.
1900. “Magnetic Disturbances in the Isle of Skye”: Proc. Camb. Phil.
Soc., vol. x, pp. 268-78.
“Igneous Rock-Series and Mixed Igneous Rocks”: Journ. GeoL ,
vol. viii, pp. 3S9-99.
1901. “On a Question Relative to Extinction-Angles in Rock-Slices”:
Min. Mag., vol. xiii, pp. 66-8.
“Ice-Erosion in the Cuillin Hills, Skye”: Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.,
vol. xl, pp. 221-52.
“The Sequence of the Tertiary Igneous Rocks of Skye”: Geol.
Mag., pp. 506-9.
1903. “The Overthrust Torridonian Rocks of the Isle of Rum, and the
Associated Gneisses” : Q.J.G.S., vol. lix, pp. 189-215.
1904. (With C. T. Clough.) The Geology of West Central Skye , with Soay
(Mem. Geol. Surv. Scot.).
(With notes by C. T. Clough.) The Tertiary Igneous Rocks of Skye
(Mem. Geol. Surv. U.K.).
1905. “The Tertiary Crust-Movements of the Inner Hebrides”: Trans.
Edin. Geol. Soc., vol. viii, pp. 344-50.
1906. “The Geological Structure of the Sgurr of Eigg ”: Q.J.G.S.,
vol. Ixii, pp. 40-67.
“Cordierite in the Metamorphosed Skiddaw Slates”: Naturalist ,
“A Cordierite-bearing Lava from the Lake District ” : Geol. Mag.,
1907. “ Notes on the Rocks of the Beagle Collection,” I : ibid., pp. 100-6.
“Igneous Rock-magmas as Solutions”: Science Progress , vol. ii,
1908. (With contributions by G. Barrow.) The Geology of the Small Isles oj
Inverness-shire (Mem. Geol. Surv. Scot.).
1909. The Natural History of Igneous Rocks , Svo, London.
1910. Tables for Calculation of Rock Analyses , Cambridge.
1912. Presidential Address to Section C (Geology) : Rep. Brit. Assoc, for
1911, pp. 370-81.
“Petrology in Yorkshire” (Presidential Address to the Yorkshire
Naturalists’ Union): Naturalist , pp. 37-44, 69-73.
C. T. Trechmann—Cretaceous Mollusca
1912. “ Lamprophyre Dykes in Long Sleddale” : ibid., pp. 266-7.
1914. “Fractional Crystallization the Prime Factor in the Differentiation
of Rock-magmas ” : Congr. Geol. Int. Comp.-Rend., xii, pp. 205-8.
“The Sgurr of Eigg : some Comments on Mr. Bailey’s Paper”:
Geol. Mag., pp. 306-S.
“ Some Remarks on Geology in Relation to the Exact Sciences, with
an Excursus on Geological Time ” (Presidential Address to the
Yorkshire Geological Society) : Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc., vol. xix,
1916. “Differentiation in Intercrustal Magma - Basins”: Journ. Geol .,
vol. xxiv, pp. 554-S.
1917. Presidential Address to the Geological Society of London, delivered
February 16 (see Reports and Proceedings, Geol. Mag., pp. 191-2,
II.—Cretaceous Mollusca from; New Zealand.
By C. T. Trechmann, M.Sc., F.G.S.
PLATES XIX AND XX. 1
WING to incomplete paleontological knowledge, the true age
u and correlation of the various divisions of the great Mesozoic
series of New Zealand, which, together with the Maitai Series, forms
such an important element in the structure of the country, has long
remained a matter of uncertainty. In consequence the idea has to
some extent taken hold among New Zealand geologists that the
Mesozoic faunas, owing to supposed conditions of isolation, show
archaic features. It was explained that certain Permian forms
occurred in the Trias and that Trias forms may have persisted into
Jurassic times, and to a still greater extent that a Cretaceous fauna
lived on in this portion of the earth into the Tertiary period.
On going further into these questions I find no support for the
theory, and in the case of the Cretaceous, a comparison of the fauna
of the Senonian with corresponding faunas of Australia and especialh r
of South America shows that the isolated survival theory is un¬
tenable. The arguments adduced in its favour apply equally well to
the Cretaceous of South America and other parts of the Indo-Pacific
region as they do to New Zealand.
It must be remembered that the present isolation of New Zealand
as a land mass is a phenomenon of late geological time. In the
Permo-Carboniferous period there was as much or more land in the
Southern Hemisphere as there now is in the Northern. The Cretaceous
and Tertiary faunas of New Zealand point to a much closer connexion
with South America than obtains at the present day. The number
of species of recent Mollusca common to the coasts of New Zealand
and Tierra del Fuego is now very slight.
In a paper recently published in this Magazine 2 I showed that the
Maitai Series contains a fauna which agrees, so far as it goes, exactly
with that of the marine Permo-Carboniferous of New South Wales
1 Plate XXI will appear with the second part in the August Number.
2 “ The Age of the Maitai Series of New Zealand ” : Geol. Mag., N.S.,
Dec. YI, Yol. IV, pp. 53-64, Feb. 1917.